Supernatural elements like ghosts, vampires, and demons play a huge role in the symbolic aspects of Gothic literature , helping to represent ideas and feelings and as a whole enhancing the typically dark mood of most texts.
Gothic literature includes dark and gloomy settings including places like cemeteries and worn down houses.
Gothic literature also has villains, heroes, and anti-heroes. Authors tended to make their protagonists anti-heroes.
The 'damsel in distress' is also a common sight in their literature and are typically part of the reason the protagonist gets involved.
Finally the most common element of Gothic literature is the atmosphere of darkness and fear that nearly every piece of literature in this genre provokes. The audience is made to fear the monster in the story through numerous literary techniques. One of the main reasons Gothic literature is so effective is the realist roots of it. Monsters are made to feel real in order to create suspense.