Crash Course Politics
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Civil Liberties limit what a government can do while Civil Rights guarantee equality to all citizens
Lawyers differentiate rights even more by Substantive Liberties and Procedural Liberties
This changed after the Civil War where the Reconstruction Amendments were introduced
In the case Barron V. Baltimore - 1833, the court said that the Bill of Rights only applied to the Federal Government so they weren't protected from the states
The 14th Amendment being the most important for now it also protected citizens from the states as it did from the government
The 4th Amendment protects people from searches and seizures conducted by police officers yet it's not a complete right because, officers are allowed to search you if they have reasonable belief
When officers want to search and seize things as evidence they would need to go to receive a warrant from a judge
In order to acquire a warrant they need to present a judge with probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place being searched or objects that are to be seized
When police search a house without a warrant and find illegal things that they can't use that against the defendant in court
This is called the Exclusionary Rule- Unlawfully obtained evidence is excluded from the trial, sometimes called the "Fruit of the poisoned tree"
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