Our story begins with a single water molecule resting in a lake.
Although he may seem like he is in peace, the sun is coming, and will change who he is.
This is known as evaporation. When a liquid is heated to transform into a gas.
Because the gas molecules are less dense than the air around them, they will rise.
They will rise until they re-condense into water and become clouds.
In the city, this water will bunch, and run with gravity down roads(runoff) until it evaporates, or it finds a permeable patch of ground(Aquifer).
When enough water accumulates in the cloud, it will fall as rain or freeze and fall as snow. This is know as precipitation.
In a field, or grassy region, the water is able to permeate through unsaturated layers of ground. This is known as infiltration.
Unsaturated layers of ground are permeable because there is minimal water within it.
Water permeability, or waters ability to flow through an area relies on the size of the grains, the amount of open spaces, the connectivity of the open spaces, and the volume of water already present in the Aquifer.
The picture above is an example of a saturated zone, where water cannot permeate any further because the maximum volume of water this layer can hold has been reached.
The larger the grain size the more easily water can pass through, having connected open spaces allows water to have one lane to pass through for a more direct flow.
The water eventually will be drawn up by a well, or will be used by plants to hydrate themselves.
Adhesion: Water's attraction to different types of molecules.
The plants, including trees, use a processes called Cohesion and Adhesion to combat gravity and be drawn up into the tree. This is known as plant uptake.
Cohesion: Water's attraction to water molecules.
Water molecules attack to each other, then attach to the the tree and repeat the process.