I think that I should be the one to appoint church officials.
You do not have the right to appoint officials!
Actually, I do. Now leave my church and never show yourself again.
Here is a defiant ruler and a strong-willed pope. Emperor Henry IV thought that he should have the power to appoint bishops, while pope Gregory VII thought the he should have that power.
We all agree with pope Gregory VII!
I'm so sorry! Will you ever forgive me?
But Gregory had strong ideas about the power of the pope and he declared his supreme authority over both church and secular leaders.
I forgive you.
In response, Henry ignored Gregory's rules. Gregory then excommunicated Henry.
And I also, agree.
Stories say that Henry waited outside the castle in the snow for three days
Finally, the pope and the emperor come to turns by reaching an agreement called The Concordat of Worms. The Concordat of Worms gave the Church authority to appoint bishops and also allowed emperors to give fiefs to bishops to win their loyalty.