The legend of the beginning of Rome is about two boys named Romulus and Remus who were raised by wolves. They became great people and built a city. They fought over the name and Romulus killed Remus. The city was called Rome.
The first type of government Rome had was a republic. They had two classes of citizens, the plebeians or common people and the Patricians which could have the government jobs. They had an Assembly which represented Rome, a Senate which became the most powerful, and the consuls that were put in place by the king.
Early Roman Empire
Rome fought in series of three wars against Carthage called the Punic Wars. Rome won the first two but in the third they completely dominated Carthage. They latter went on to conquer Macedonia, Syria, and a small Asian kingdom.
Caesar Augustus and the Pax Romana
Julius Caesar was the ruler of Rome from 49 B.C. to 44 B.C. when he was killed. He angered the Senate by declaring himself dictator for life.
After Caesar died Octavian and Anthony were the two leading candidates for his position, and Octavian became emperor and changed his name to Caesar Augustus. He did many great things for the empire and got it ready for Jesus.
Caesar became emperor and started the Pax Romana. This was a time of peace which lasted for almost 600 years. During this time the empire prospered and strengthened.