France is broke from helping the American soldiers beat the British during the American Revolution. The French had gave the Americans weapons, supplies, and soldiers to fight against the strongest military in the world. They were on the verge of bankruptcy. They also did not have high enough taxes for the government to not go bankrupt.
The third estate was made of peasants and farmers and people that were not nobles or church keepers. They had to pay high taxes and none of the other estates had to pay any taxes. The food prices were very high and the pay was very low. The King had also spent money recklessly and the government was not getting a lot of money from taxes.
Storming of Bastille
The third estate wanted more power in the government because only the first and second estates got a say in the government. Which was not fair to the third estate because they were the only ones who payed taxes and had no say in the government. The third estate formed a group called the National Assembly and they broke off.
National assembly takes over
The French Declaration states that no person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by the law. It also states that the law shall provide for such a punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishments except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law.
The storming of the Bastille occurred when an angry mob had attacked the prison. The prison became a symbol of monarchy. It was what got King Louis very mad which had really sparked the revolution.
The national assembly had overthrown the idea of monarchy, and they had formed the first government where everyone had a say in the government, the taxes and the laws that would be passed by the government.