In 1821, Mexico declared independence from Spain and granted Moses Austin permission to settle 300 families in Texas (the old 300).
Mexico Reattempts Authority
Austin never got to lead the families across himself, however, as he died while returning from Mexico City, and his son, Stephen, took his father's place and brought 272 people to Texas.
General Santa Anna
The Mexican government had two conditions for the new settlers: To convert to Roman Catholicism and to become Mexican citizens. However, the Americans did not obey either term.
The Battle of Alamo
In order to regain control over the settlers, Mexico formally banned slavery again, established a chain of military posts occupied by convict soldiers, restricted trade with the U.S., and ended further American immigration.
In 1832, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became the president of Mexico, seemingly good news for the colonists, as they hoped that he would make Texas more independent. However, Santa Anna overthrew the Mexican constitutional government, abolished state governments, and made himself dictator. To revolt, Texans tried to recruit Mexican liberals to bring back state governments, and hopefully, in the process make Texas a separate state.
Santa Anna marched with 7,000 soldiers to recapture the city of San Antonio. Sam Houston, leader of Texas's military forces, ordered it to be abandoned, but 150 rebels stayed to defend it at an abandoned Spanish mission, the Alamo. They held the fight for 12 days and were defeated with 183 defenders dead, but managed to cut down Santa Anna's forces with 1,550 casualties. "Remember the Alamo" became the battle cry for Texas's independence.