Translation is the process of 'decoding' a messenger RNA (mRNA) and using the information to build a polypeptide or chain of amino acids. Like transcription there are also 3 stages; initiation, elongation and termination.
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Initiation is the first stage of translation, in order for it to start you need three things; ribosomes, mRNA and an initiator. during initiation these three must come together to make a initiation complex. To make them come together they needs a specialized protein called initiation factors Their job is to help the ribosome subunits, tRNA, and mRNA find each other.
Once the ribosomes, mRNA and initiator come together the tRNA attaches to the small ribosomal subunit. Together, they bind to the 5' end of the mRNA.
The next stage in Translation is elongation. Elongation is the process of adding amino acids to form a peptide bond, which will eventually form a polypeptide bond. To create the peptide bond, the chain starts with a start codon, the mRNA then travels through the ribosome so the next codon is available. The tRNA then brings along the correct matching anicodon. The tRNA then attaches to the mRNA in the ribosome and matches the amino acids up together to form a peptide bond.
This process continues and creates a polypeptide bond. The last stage of Translation is Termination. Termination is the process of stopping the polypeptide chain and happens when a stop codon in the mRNA enters. No tRNA molecules attach to these codons so the peptide and tRNA hydrolysed and release the polypeptide. The small and large subunits of the ribosome dissociate ready for the next round of translation.