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  • Well first, the DNA strands unzip to allow the mRNA to copy a single gene. Then an enzyme builds the mRNA strand by bringing in nitrogen bases and matching them up with the DNA bases.
  • Hi! My names Deoxy Ribo. Do you know how DNA makes proteins?
  • I don't know Deoxy. How?
  • Yes, except for thymine. With mRNA, thymine doesn't match with adenine, so instead, it's replaced with uracil. After that, the mRNA strand breaks off, leaves the cell, and goes into the cytoplasm.
  • Yes! And there's more. I'll show you!
  • So the result of transcription is an mRNA strand?
  • The same nitrogen bases as the original DNA?
  • As you can see here, a ribosome is reading the newly created mRNA strand. Meanwhile, tRNA is carrying in the correct amino acids to create the necessary protein.
  • And as you see here, the result of this process called Translation is a properly coded protein, which folds up and then goes to perform a specific function.
  • If mistakes are made before transcription such as substitution, insertion or deletion, the mRNA strand won't be built and coded correctly.
  • That's cool and all, but with such a complicated process going on constantly, mistakes are bound to happen. What happens then?
  • Oh no! So it must effect translation too.
  • Yes! Incorrect coding leads to an incorrectly built protein due to different amino acids. If a protein is built incorrectly, it can't perform the function it was made to do, which can cause a chain reaction with all of your DNA.
  • Don't worry. The probability of that happening is very low. You body is doing it constantly and is unlikely to make mutations.
  • Ahhh! What if that happens to me?!
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