Johnny affects Ponyboy because he is always with him and near him. Pony gets to know Johnny well after spending a week with him in the church, after Johnny killed a soc to save Pony's life. that moment where johnny saves Pony's life brings them closer than they ever were. when Johnny dies it is really hard for Pony to handle, he goes into denial and gets very upset because he meant so much to him.
Socs V.S Greasers is a big part of Pony's life because they are in a constant battle. they affect him because they almost killed him. they were also the reason that Johnny was living fear because he was afraid of Bob and his rings. the rumbles also affected him because after Dally and Johnny died not only was he in denial he was delusional because of the concussion from the Soc kicking him.
The park is an important setting because it leads to most of Pony's problems later in the story. It leads to him and Johnny hiding from the cops for the week at the church. The church later burns down and that kills Johnny. With johnny's death come dally's death and then sadness throughout the gang.