Long ago in 2255 BC, King Hiero wanted to look better and more kingly, so he gives the blacksmith 2 kg of gold and told him he would get a reward, but he pocketed some gold and threw in silver! The king was befuddled and got Archimedes to solve the mystery.
CLANG! CLANG! FOOOOOSSSHHHH!
I don't think it's all gold...
My liege, I give you the crown!
2255 BC: King Hiero needed a crown, so he asked the Blacksmith to make him one.
Archimedes, I need you to find out if the crown is made of all gold.
Yes, my lord.
Yes, thank you, my great king.
The chest the messengers gave him was filled with 2 kg of gold. When he got it, he got to work right away... but pocketed a bit of the gold, substituting it for silver!
I'm going to take a bath, I'll figure things out later.
Hmmm... they balance perfectly! But how?
King Hiero gave the blacksmith his payment, but was convinced that he was being cheated!
Hmmm... If I measure the water that came out, I'll figure it out!
The King was very puzzled and unsure, so he calls forth his greatest man: Archimedes. Archimedes was very smart and built war machines and loved birds. He could find out if the crown was made of all gold.
Oh, by the way, I'll double your reward for those outstanding war machines you built.
He got to work straight away, measuring the crown with a 2 kg bar of gold. They balanced perfectly.
But he found out his body displaced the water in the bath! What he found out was a solution to help him figure out the mystery.