A storyBoard about how dark matter and energy affect the universe. Information from https://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy
How they affect the universe
Dark Matter/Energy and
Dark Energy is a theoretical repulsive force that counteracts gravity and causes the universe to expand at an increasing rate.
Dark matter come from from our tries to explain the observed mismatch between the gravitational mass and the illumination mass of galaxies and clusters of galaxies
68% of the universe is Dark Energy
Dark energy is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing. The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence.
Because this energy is a property of space, it would not be diluted as space expands. As more space comes into existence, more of this energy-of-space would appear. This form of energy would cause the universe's expansion rate increase and speed up.
Then one version of Einstein's gravity theory, the version that contains a cosmological constant, makes a prediction: "empty space" can possess its own energy.
Another reason for dark energy is that it is a new kind of dynamical energy fluid or field, something that fills all of space but something which effects on the expansion of the universe is the reverse of that of normal energy/matter. A few theorists have named this "quintessence," after the Greek philosophers fifth element. But, if quintessence is the answer, we still don't know what it is like, what it interacts with, or why it exists.
The thing that is needed to decide between dark energy possibilities - a property of space, a new dynamic fluid, or a new theory of gravity - is more data, better data.
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