There was navy and political motives. The Westerners civilization mission was growing racial superiority. The western side was more stable and colonized.
In the 1800s , many countries such as Britain, France, Germany, and other European powers began to control over African territories.
In a powerful empire in India, there´s Mughal rulers. The Mughal rulers were failing from the lack of strong rulers in the mid 1700s. But Britain had gotten interest of making the region into political ones.
The Chinese favored a balance trade with other nations. By 1800s , however, western nations were using their growing power to tilt the balance of trade with East Asia in their favor.