Abraham and his wife, Sarah leads their people in the Promised Land, they had a son called Isaac and Isaac had a son called Jacob and from there, all those who come after them will inherit the Promised Land until it reach Jesus.
Moses leads the Jews away from Egypt to the Promised Land but on their way to the Promised Land, Moses died before they cross the Jordan River and a leader named Joshua leads the Israelites to the Promised Land.
Saul was named King of the 12 tribes. David was a young brave warrior who became popular with the Israelites for leading them in some victories over the Philistines. Saul became jealous of David but during Saul's reign as King the 12 tribes divided. THe 10 northern tribes became known as Israel and the 2 tribes in the south were called Judah.
The Jewish Independence started when the Zealots formed a rebellion against the Greeks, then the Greeks selected a Jewish Family to take over before they grant independence to the Jewish people but not all of them agreed with the Greek Choice. As a result of this, many political groups arose, like the Sadducees, the Essenes and the Pharisees would try and work together for a period of time to rule all of Palestine.
The Romans were able to build such a powerful empire in their day was because of their wise way in ruling the land that they conquered by carefully selecting leaders from the conquered people themselves to rule on behalf of the Romans.