Napoleon Chagnon is a cultural anthropologist who spent time with the Yanomamo in a field study. Napoleon is represented by the dude in Hawaiian getup while the native looking people are meant to represent the indigenous Yanomamo (Random ones, not specific ones).
Who was your parent?
In Napoleon's field report, he noted that he had to avoid giving the locals any western medicine even though that it could help cure someone. These tough times an observer has to go through becuase they know they could help someone but it would affect the results of the observation.
Gaining trust can be difficult in cultures because of their diffrent ways of gaining respect. Napoleon had trouble when the way he gained respect was sharing, but as an outsider, he could not share such gifts to one tribe.
Getting realistic and honest information could be difficult as an anthropologist because many cultures have taboos that can make it hard. Napoleon found this out when he tried to find out dead family member names, which was a taboo for the Yanamamo.
Mr. Smelly Feet.
Maintaining your mental health could take a hit with the aspect of losing your connection with the outside world and privacy. Without the privacy you get in the outside world, many can go mad. This privacy issue popped up with Napoleon in the case that his "shelter" was raided many times by the tribe.
Napoleon Chagnon had was greeted by the tribe he was going to study in a violent manner due to their aggressive culture. Being a cultural anthropologist can have risks like this in manners of greeting, but they can also be peaceful all depending on the culture of the native inhabitants.