John Locke: People are naturally good but society makes them bad
Thomas Hobbes: No people are greedy but the monarchy keeps them in line!
Seperation of Powers by Montesquieu 1734
If the government was split into different institutes it would create a more fair and equal government!
Voltaire Mocks Government 1759
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were both English and rivals. Thomas Hobbes supported the monarchy and the church, he even said "It is not wisdom but Authority that makes a law." Meanwhile John Locke tried proving the opposite in his book "Two Treaties of Government". John Locke believed that humans are good but society is what made people greedy and inhumane.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract 1762
The government should do what the people want
Montesquieu was a French revolutionist who believed that of the government split up, it would create a more fair an equal government system. He thought that if there were three different branches - Legislative, Executive, Judicial in the constitution than it would create a system that won't abuse its power, like King Louis XVI did.
Cesare Beccaria's On Crimes and Punishments (1764)
Why do people have to die for stealing food to feed their families? All they were doing is feeding their own, no one deserves to die for a mistake.
Voltaire used satire humor to create works against the monarchy and church, specifically around the concept of liberty and religious tolerance/freedom. He wrote "Candide" in 1759. He was later tortured and jailed for speaking out against dukes and kings. However he later fled to Prussia for sanctuary and became close friends with King Frederick.
Period of the Three Critiques - Immanuel Kant (1781)
Jean-Jacques worked with Voltaire to publish the Social Contract, which states that the government should do what the people want. Jean-Jacques' Social Contract was one of the main causes of the French Revolution and it was later used in many countries to establish new ways of government that grant the people want they want/need.
"Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains."
Cesare Beccaria saw so many people suffering from the strict laws and rules like the death penalty, torture, forms of interrogation and thought that peopled on't deserve to die for simple mistakes like doing something in order to live. So he wrote his book, "On Crimes and Punishments" which states solutions to improve the justice system.
Immanuel Kant justified the importance of religion. He believes in the good of man and in the basics of a religion that makes people good. Kant created the Categorical imperative - “Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”