Ancient River Valley Civilizations in India, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China used seas and waterways like the Nile, Indus, Tigris and Euphrates, and Yellow River totransport goods from one place to another. They also used trade routes to travel across land likethe Silk Road and Trans-Saharan desert route.
Trade also happened between European explorers andthe Americas. Ships would sail across the Atlantic Ocean and the journey would take several months. This movement of plants, animals, ideas, people and disease between the Old World (Europe) and the New World(the Americas) was called the Columbian Exchange.
Valuable goods included food, salt and spices, and handmade items like pottery, clothing, and jewelry crafted from precious metals and gems like Lapis Lazuli, Agate, Carnelian, and Turquoise. Some regions had a trade monopoly on rare goods, like cotton from India and bananas from China.
Merchants from each civilization would travel on ships and in caravans to exchange these goods in cities and markets.These trade networks would also exchange technologies and ideas, such as religion, new crops, new ways of farming,writing systems, metallurgy, tools, and weapons.
Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Rice, Terrace Farming
In the Ancient River Valley Civilizations in India, Africa, China, and the Middle East, new ideas and technologies increased food supplies, populations,and wealth, and urbanized areas with homes andmonumental architecture. They also lead to migration, erosion and deforestation of the land, and the spread of new religions like Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Diseases also spread, which decreased population density and elevated the social ranking of skilled workers.
Plants, animals,ideas, and technologies!
The Columbian Exchange also affected societies. In the Old and New Worlds, it introduced new crops,animals, ideas, and technologies to both Europe and the Americas, but European explorers brought disease and slavery as well.