Queen Elizabeth ruled England as a Protestant country, and Philip II was a Catholic. Philip II wanted to restore Catholicism to England, which is one cause of the Spanish Armada.
On July 21, the English navy started attacking the line of Spanish ships from a distance, using long-range guns. On July 29, the English sent 8 burning ships into the crowded harbor at Calais. Spanish ships cut their anchors and sail out to sea to avoid catching fire.
Atlantic storms that destroyed many ships and scattered the fleet on route to England, causing them to retreat back to northern Spain.