how mitosis and meiosis are used and their importance
diploid & haploids
Homologous chromosomes & Crossing over
Mitosis and meiosis both involve cells dividing to make new cells. ... Meiosis makes the cells needed for sexual reproduction to occur, and mitosis replicates non-sex cells needed for growth and development. Together, they provide the cellular basis for healthy growth and sexual reproduction. .
Therefore, cells with two sets are diploid, and those with one set are haploid. In diploid organisms, such as humans, the haploid cells are used only for the sex cells for reproduction, while the rest of the cells are diploid
When homologous chromosomes form pairs during pro phase I of meiosis I, crossing-over can occur. Crossing-over is the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes. It results in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. As mentioned above, crossing-over occurs during pro phase I, and it is the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes. Recall during prophase I, homologous chromosomes line up in pairs, gene-for-gene down their entire length, forming a configuration with four chromatids, known as a tetrad.