The three types of mental operations or schemes with which the child organizes and interprets the world during this stage are: seriation, classification and conservation. Seriation is the ability to order objects in logical progression; for example, from the smallest to the highest.
Classification. People learn to classify objects according to their similarities and to establish relations of belonging between the objects and the groups in which they are included.
The blue ones are books of different subjects and the red ones are encyclopedies.
Conservation: According to Piaget's theory, the ability to reason about conservation problems is what characterizes the stage of concrete operations. Conservation consists of understanding that an object remains the same despite superficial changes in its shape or physical appearance. During this phase, the child no longer bases his reasoning on the physical aspect of the objects.
Don't worry mom. It is still bread.
Oh no! I burned the toasted bread.
The stage of formal operations (from 11 to 12 years of age). Once the ability to solve problems such as seriation, classification and conservation has been achieved, the 11 to 12 year old child begins to form a coherent system of formal logic. At the end of the period of the specific operations, it already has the cognitive tools that allow it to solve many types of logic problems.
If Angela speaks lower than Rosa and Celia speaks louder than Rosa, does Angela speak louder or lower than Celia?
The ability to think abstractly and reflexively is achieved during the stage of formal operations, which has four fundamental characteristics of thought: Propositional logic: the ability to extract a logical inference from the relationship between two assumptions and premises.
If I jump from here, will I be hurt?
Scientific reasoning. As the adolescent learns to usepropositional logic, he begins to address the problems in a more systematicway. It formulates hypotheses, determines how to compare them with the factsand excludes those that are false. Piaget gave the name of hypothetical-deductivethought to the ability to generate and test hypotheses in a logical andsystematic way.