Exposition If you think smart and work hard you can over come any obstacles.
"Thinking back now, he wasn't sure why he ran. Maybe he was in a hurry to bring the shoes to his father or maybe he was trying to run away from his miserable humiliating day at school" (pg 24.)
"He tried to jam it into the earth, but the blade bunged against the ground and bounced off without making a dent" (pg 26.)
"Everyday Elya carried the little piglet up the mountain and sand to it as it drank from the stream. As the pig grew fatter Elya became stronger(pg139.)
Stanley wasn't thinking about what he was doing that's why he didn't overcome that obstacle.
"Stanley took hold of zero's forearms and pulled him upright.Then he stooped down and let zero fall over his right shoulder.He stood up, lifting zero's worn-out body of the ground (pg 170.)
Stanley was working really hard to achieve his goal which is to dig his first hole.
"He dug with his hands until he found the leather handle and then he pulled the suitcase up and out of the dirt (pg 202.)
Elya was getting stronger by carrying the pig up the mountain every day, he is working hard by doing that.
He worked really hard to carry zero up God's Thumb.
Stanley and Zero were smart to make a plan before getting the suitcase and they worked hard to together.
Stanley worked hard and broke the curse.
"The reader might find it interesting, however, that Stanley's father invented his cure for foot odor the day after great-great-grandson of Elya Yelnats carried the great-great-great-grandson of Madame Zeroni up the mountain(pg 229.)