When Nicolas II came into power, he made multiple mistakes. Because he was interested in the resources that China and Korea provided, he went to war with Japan. He lost, and was blamed for depleting Russia's resources. After that, he tried to appeal to the people by establishing a Duma (type of representative government), however, he never truly acknowledged it. Finally, he was blamed for wrongly leading Russia during World War I. During this time, Lenin was also spreading Marxist propaganda which appealed to many people, and became the beginning of the formation of the USSR.
Tsar Nicolas II and His "Reforms" and Failures
The October Revolution (1917)
Discontent with the current Tsar grew, and it became much more prominent after the Bloody Sunday massacre. In 1905, a series of revolts to make social and economic reforms broke out within the industrial workers. They organized together in front of the Tsar's palace, and were protesting peacefully with signs and petitions, but they refused to leave until they delivered their petition to the Tsar. However, Nicolas II was not in the town at the time. His guards and army decided to take matters into their own hands, and opened fire to stop the protests. This event led to a lot of tension and it made public resentment towards Nicolas II increase.
The Russian Civil War (1918 - 1920)
Bloody Sunday (1905)
The February Revolution was a series of riots and protests that began in 1917. Despite clashing with the police, the industrial workers continued to protests because they wanted socialist reforms.
After the February Revolution, Tsar Nicolas II was forced to abdicate his throne, especially because the army garrison joined the protests . In his absence, the Duma created a provisional government, that would later be overthrown.
February Revolution (1917)
.October of 1917 was the last major step on the Bolshevik's part in which they launched a coup d'etat on the Duma's provisional government. The Duma had established the government with a few wealthier citizens from Russia. While there was no bloodshed, this was a major blow that ensured that the Bolsheviks would be successful. Lenin with the help of Leon Trotsky called for a soviet government that would be ruled by a group of soldiers, peasants and workers. They promised "peace, land, and bread."
Bolshevik Army/Red Army
The Bolsheviks had seized power in a coup d'etat, which meant that there would be some form of resistance from the public. As a result, the Civil War broke out in Russia. The victory of the Bolsheviks in this civil war would have major impacts on Russia as a whole, that would result in the USSR.
In 1922, under Vladimir Lenin, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the USSR lasted for about 69 years, ending in the year 1991. After the death, of Lenin, power was handed over to Joseph Stalin who becomes dictator and leads the USSR through World War II. He also transformed Russia into a military and industrial power.