Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman dictator, politician, and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He was also a historian and wrote Latin prose.
"Et tu brute"
On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar was stabbed to death in Rome, Italy. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic, and his assassins were Roman senators, fellow politicians who helped shape Roman policy and government.
Julius Caesar was immensely popular with the people of Rome. He was a successful military leader who expanded the republic to include parts of what are now Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium. Caesar was also a popular author who wrote about his travels, theories, and political views.
Caesar was assassinated by political rivals on the Ides of March (March 15th), 44 B.C. It's not clear whether Caesar knew of the plot to kill him: By all accounts, he planned to leave Rome on March 18 for a military campaign in what is now modern-day Iraq, where he hoped to avenge the losses suffered by his former political ally Crassus.
Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, former rivals of Caesar who'd joined the Roman Senate, led Caesar’s assassination. Cassius and Brutus dubbed themselves "the liberators."
A power struggle ensued in Rome, leading to the end of the Roman Republic. Caesar's great-grandnephew Gaius Octavian played on the late ruler's popularity, assembling an army to fight back the military troops defending Cassius and Brutus. His victory over Caesar's assassins allowed Octavian, who assumed the name Augustus, to take power in 27 B.C. and become the first Roman emperor.