Scout has entered school and Miss Fisher chastises her for knowing how to read and write. She is also clad in shorts and not a dress which would be appropriate for the time. She is explaining Walter's entailment and how the "system of Maycomb" works. Miss Fisher does not understand. This should be the start of the timeline of Scout's loss of innocence story line. Character development should begin at this point.
Scout at the End of To Kill a Mockingbird
Jem and Dill begin to come up with elaborate ways to try to lure Boo Radley out of his house. This demonstrates Jem's child-like ways at the start of the novel. His fascination with Boo Radley will ultimately lead him to recognizing Boo and later Tom as "Mockingbirds." This is the beginning of Jem's coming of age journey that will be explained and connected through the trial. Historical references to racism begin here.
Jem at the End of To Kill a Mockingbird
Atticus represents the morality of town of Maycomb. By taking the Tom Robinson case, Atticus ensures that he will receive a fair trial. Atticus illustrates the dark aspects of those paces in the south that subscribed to Jim Crow Laws during The Great Depression. The way in which Atticus raises his children shows his ability to allow his children to grow in maturity and learn the lessons of life in the time period.
Atticus at the End of To Kill a Mockingbird
Scout shows here that she has grown and matured. Before she would not wear a dress. Now, she recognizes that she is becoming a young lady and must act appropriately. She begins to accept the gender roles of this historical timeframe. This represents part of her loss of innocence and coming of age in themes.
After hearing the verdict in the Tom Robinson trial, Jem is devastated. He doesn't understand how Tom could have been proven guilty. The racial injustices during this time in history were not apparent to Jem who was still a child. During the trial, he grew both in age and maturity and began to see Mahycomb as it really was.
Atticus remains the moral compass of the town of Maycomb. Scout and Jem truly see who there father is and what he represents: all that is good with humanity. They now know that Atticus represents the best of all of them. Jem and Scout understand that racism lives in the world, but there are those who try to make it better.