Abraham,Issac and Jacob were the 3 Patriarchs.Abraham formed a covenant with God,in which the generations after him will inherit a Promised Land and will be protected.In return they were to follow God loyally.Sarah gave birth to Issac.Issac's wife gave birth Jacob,who had 12 sons.One of those sons was Joseph, he was sold into slavery by his brothers, who then became the P.M. Joseph brought his family to come live with him in Egypt,thus causing the Hebrews to prosper in Egypt.
Moses received laws from God on the top of Mount Sinai,known as the Torah. The Torah described a covenant in which God promised to return the Israelite's to Canaan if they followed his laws. Moses led the Hebrews away from slavery in Egypt. It took them 40 years before they reached Canaan.Moses died before they got there and Joshua took over. As the land was conquered by the Hebrews, led by Joshua,it was divided into 12 sections to represent Jacobs 12 sons.
Saul came to power during the Philistine military threat.During Saul's reign the 12 tribes became divided. The 10 tribes in the north, Israel, and the 2 tribes in the south Judah. David eventually became king,who led Israel in defeating the Philistines. David was a great king.David's son,Solomon was a bad king who turned away from God. Solomons son Rheoboam took over as king of Judah, who alienated the north and didnt listen to their demands, therefore causing the north and south to split.
Alexander the Great conquered Israel and Judah and renamed it Palestine. Which was divided in 2 parts 1 Greek general for each part. One was based in Syria and Egypt.The people of Palestine embraced the Jewish lifestyle. In Galilee Greek culture influenced all levels of Jewish life so much that the region is referred to in the bible as "Gentiles of Galilee", which was an insult. The Greek rule ended in in 198 B.C.E. Israelite's were allowed to take control of their society but soon rulers increased finances.
A group of rebel Jews, the Zealots, formed an uprising against the Greek rule. The Greeks crushed the rebellion, raided Jerusalem and destroyed the beloved Temple. In place of that Temple the Greeks built and altar to worship Zeus. The southern part of Palestine fought and won the rebellion ,"The Maccabean war". In 164 B.C.E the sacred Temple was reclaimed. This event is still known today as Hanukkah. By 142 B.C.E the Jews had complete freedom from the Greeks.
Before the Greeks left they put a family in charge.The Greeks had selected, Herod to rule the people of Israel. Poor leadership lead to different political groups being formed. The Sadducee's, Essene's and Pharisees.These groups cause turmoil in the country. The Roman empire took advantage of this and 60 years before the birth of Jesus, they took control over Palestine. When Herod heard his position was in jeopardy due to the birth of a Messiah, he created a plan to kill all the newborns. His sons were given control of the Northeast region of Palestine. Five different men would hold this position until Romans selected Pontius Pilate. The Zealots tried to form a rebellion again but didn't succeed, the Jews lost all hope. The idea of a Messiah had morphed into a great military leader one would overthrow the Romans.