Monarchs used to have total control over their lands, using Divine Right as justification. They didn't share power with anybody.
Parliament was instated to ensure that common people had a say in the the development of laws, and served as a form of checks and balances to ensure that the ruler didn't have too much power.
Charles I didn't like listening to Parliament, so he got rid of them, so only he could have power
Cromwell, a puritan, ignites a civil war against Charles, and ends up winning and overthrows Charles from the throne, killing him.
Cromwell then booted out anybody in Parliament that supported Charles, leaving a Rump Parliament and run England with a martial rule. He would later end up dissolving Parliament.
Once Cromwell died, Charles II took to the Throne. Not wanting to displease Parliament like others, he had a mutual understanding with them and formed the Cabal, a group of advisers that resided within Parliament.