England's Government Transformation
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Monarchy -> Commonwealth
James I and Charles I believed in the Divine Right of Kings and did not work with Parliament. Both kings were always short on funds, so much so, that Charles fell into the requests of Parliament by agreeing to the Petition of Rights in 1628
Commonwealth -> Constitutional Monarchy
Needing even more money to fight his religious war with the Scots, Charles recalled Parliament, however, they used this as an opportune time to limit monarchical power through the passing of several laws.
Oliver Cromwell's Round Heads defeated the monarchy-supporting Cavaliers in a bloody civil war. Cromwell abolished the monarch and House of Lords when he came to power. He was known for barring Dutch ships from English trade.
Cromwell died in 1658, but his successor, Cromwell's son Richard, did not lead like his father. Instead, Parliament invited Charles I's son Charles II back to rule the country, thereby restoring the monarchy, Church of England, and Parliament.
James II fled off after William and Mary raised a united opposition. Under the English Bill of Rights in 1689, Parliament granted itself a great deal more power, rejected the divine right of kings, and established a limited monarchy.
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