East Africa, the birthplace of humanity, is home to both archaic and modern species of humans known to be "Hominins." "Homo Habilis" was one of theearliest members of the genus Homo.
2 Million Years Ago
A F R I C A
E U R A S I A
Due to climate fluctuations and unstable environmental resources available, "Homo erectus," ancestor of "Homo habilis," migrated from Africa to Europe and Asia to gain more life-sustaining sources to survive about 1.8 million years ago.
After migrating from Africa to Eurasia, "Homo erectus" was forced to adapt to a colder climate. In order to survive in new habitats, he added meat to his diet, became the first to develop stone hunting tools, and controlled fire for warmth and cooking purposes.
As the Ice Age descended upon Eurasia, "Homo erectus" evolved into a new human species of "Homo neanderthalensis" from his inability to adapt to cooler climates. Neanderthals had shorter and bulkier bodies, which allowed them to thrive in colder environments and use bone sewing needles to stitch tighter fitting clothing for warmth.
Around 45,000 years ago, the modern species of humans, commonly referred to as "Homo sapiens," appeared in areas of Eurasia and are believed to have coexisted as a separate species of human from "Homo neanderthalensis."
"Homo sapiens" prevailed over the Neanderthals due to their strengths in knowledge, communication, and effective adaptations to their environments. Neanderthals did not have the same complex skills, which led to their extinction and left "Homo sapiens" as the only human species on Earth from 12,000 years ago to present times.