Napoleon Bonaparte was the first king of France. When his power and everything he accomplished collpased, Europe fell into an age of chaos.
The big winners in the Congress were the four major powers, Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria. The great powers, or the ‘Big Four’ were all able to secure new territories for themselves and they all ‘enlarged their empires at the expense of lesser nations’. Russia was given much of Poland and it was allowed to keep the Duchy of Finland, which it had seized from Sweden in 1809. Prussia received most of the wealthy German province of Saxony and also some Polish territories.
The participants in the Congress, who were all representatives of monarchs had a deep distrust of nationalism, because it was associated with revolution and republican values and they ignored the demand of nationalities such as the Poles. The failure to accommodate nationalist sentiments in the Congress ultimately led to the growth of nationalism and this was to destabilize Europe, in the later nineteenth and well into the twentieth century.