Cordoba became most celebrated as a center of learning. In Cordoba, christians, Jews, and Muslims lived togther under a goverment that practiced religious tolerance or, sympathy for the beliefs and practices of others. Abd al-Rahman lll transformed Cordoba into one of the largest and greatest cities in the world.
The Ottoman Empire steadily declined after the reign of Suleyman but it lasted into the early 1900s. In 1453 the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire by capturing Constantinople. The Ottoman rulers were called sultans. The greatest of them was Suleyman 1 known as Suleyman the Mangnificent.
Science and Philosophy
Medieval Muslim leaders and scholars played a key role in preserving and building on the intellectual works of ancient Greece, Persia, and India. Muslim scholars revived interest in the works of such Greek mathematicians as Euclid and Archimedes and further developed their ideas in geometry, trigonmetry, and algebrMuMua. This encyclopedia recommened treatments for a wide range of illnesses and inccluded in depth descriptions of surgeries.
The Safavid Empire reached its peak between 1588 and 1629, during the reign of shahs. In 1722, a group of Afghan warriors invaded the Safavid Empire which resulted in its downfall. In 1556 the Mughal leader Akbar the Great came to the throne at the age 13 and led Muslim India to a brilliant golden age. In 1857, the British, who by then hadd gained control, sent the last Muhgal ruler into exile.
Medieval times, which spanned from the 500s to the 1500s saw the rise and fall of many Muslim empires. The Muslim quest for knowledge helped make the form of medicine practiced in Muslim lands the most advanced in the world. One of the most influential works was a 30- volume medical encyopedia produced around 1000 by an Arab Muslim physician in al Andalus known as al-Zahrawi.
A typical mosque was topped by a large dome and had one or more minarets. Muslim artists did not protray human figures or animals. Those buildings, especially mosques, displayed many architestural features that were developed from Roman, Egyptian, Byzantine, and Persian models.