Places at higher latitudes get less sun light than places in lower latitude. Therefore, higher latitude places colder climate. For example, Mexico is hotter than Canada because it's closer to the equator.
A higher area than the land. The higher up on the mountain you are, the colder it is.It is very cold when your at the top of the mountain. For example it is colder at a higher altitude because the atmosphere is thinner
In the day, it heats up the land more quicker than the ocean. For example, California by the ocean is 61 degrees Fahrenheit hotter in winter. Nebraska not by 31 degrees Fahrenheit the ocean colder in winter.
Ocean currents are like a giant conveyor belt of warm and cold water, sending heat from the equator and polar regions helps the earth warm and cool off influencing both weather and climate. For example Northern California is colder because of the cold ocean current that runs past it.
Prevailing winds is when high pressure air masses seek low-pressure air mass. For example, the hot Bahamian wind blows to poles to regulate temperature.
Rain shadow effect
Rain shadow effect happens when rain is on 1 side of a mountain and the other side is shielded and dry. For example, the desert is behind the Sierra Nevada mountains.