This is Galileo. He´s he was the second person to speak out against the church, after Copernicus about a heliocentric theory and well the church ordered him to reaffirm or he would get excommunicated and after all that he was still under house arrest. He was born in Pisa, Italy and attended to the monastery school at Vallombrosa.
This is Copernicus. He was the first person to speak out against the church about a heliocentric universe he also had an early education. He studied astrology and liberal arts and went to the University of Cracow.
This is Newton. He is responsible for a lot of things such as the composition of light and the reflecting telescope. He also discovered that the Earth isn´t perfectly round and his laws of gravity and motion. He also laid the foundation of calculus and went on a fellowship to Trinity College.
This is Francis Bacon. He is responsible for the scientific method which involes beggining with a question, then a hypothesis, then experimentation and finally a conclusion He was educated at Trinity College and got ill in 1575, then died 50 years later in 1626.
When scientists started questioning the church people like Galileo, were put on trial and threatend to excomunication and house arrest. Galileo had a bunch of evidence to prove what he was saying, such as the Earth must revolve around the sun and it must rotate on it´s axis because if the sun was revoving around us then we would always have day time and the church backed up everything they were saying with the Bible, yet Galileo was still put under house arrest till his death and was forced to reaffirm his writings.
We´ll to start off with Bacon´s scientfic method. Even today it still gives us today a reliable method to find something out, and Galileo we know to this day that other planets have moons because of him, and Newton and Boyle´s law help us understand how our universe works and last but not least medical procedures, medical procedures would´t be the same without medical breakthroughs.