A group of 12 students 23-45 recorded there dreams and fantasies. The aim was to asses the bizarre content of dreams and how it would it would be different to fantasies because of the activity associated with REM sleep.
A total of 60 dreams and 60 fantasies were selected and rated in a two stage system how bizarre they were. Three judges scored all 120. Inter-rater reliability was tested and they agreed 80% of the time.
The results were Bizarreness density scores for dreams 0.223 and for fantasies 0.089. They concluded dream bizarreness is the direct cognitive correlate if neuronal activity. Judges also could distinguish dreams from fantasies about 90% of the time showing that they are two different types of cognitive activities. Two criticisms are on the self report social desirability might have happened as people might have had embarrassing dreams and not reported it. Also different scores may be down to different reporting techniques from the participants or settings that the reports were written in.