One group of Vikings known as the Varangians or Rus reached Byzantium by traveling along a series of rivers that ran through a flat landscape. The area later came to be called "the land of Rus" and eventually, Russia. (Pg.166)
Ch. 11 - The Mongols Invade Russia (1240)
One Russian account stated "The churches of God they devastated, and in the holy alter they shed much blood. And no one in the town remained alive: all died equally and drank the cup of death." (Pg.168)
Ch. 11 - Ivan The Great's Ambition (1453) 1440-1505
Moscow is the new center of Christianity.
Ivan the Great encouraged his people to believe that Moscow had replaced Rome and Constantinople as the new center of Christianity. (Pg. 170)
Vikings settled in cities in Russia. Vladimir became the Grand Prince of Kiev. He wanted to unite his people by sharing a single faith. His agents set forth across lands to find a religion, they were intrigued with Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
Ch. 11 - Ivan Rebuilds The Kremlin (1500's)
Mongols (Tatars) charged Russia in the early 13th century. They destroyed towns after another. They leveled cities, looted treasure, and massacred people.Survivors who saw the attacks thought the Tartars were invincible.
Ch. 11 - Ivan The Terrible (1547) 1530-1584
Ivan The Great was becoming very powerful in Russia, and he wanted to unify it. He used the peoples pride in their religion as a way to make them feel united. Ivan had encouraged his people to believe that Moscow the world's center of Christianity. To Ivan Moscow was the "Third Rome." Ivan took the title of tsar, which recalled the might of ancient Rome. By calling himself the tsar, Ivan proclaimed that he was as powerful as Julius Caesar.
Ch. 11 - Ivan Grows More Terrible (1584)
Ivan wanted to rebuild the old and crumbling Kremlin. He brought the most talented builders from all over Russia, even Italian builders. The architects designed a wonderful group of buildings known as the Kremlin. Three great stone cathedrals rose inside the walls. The Kremlin was the symbol of Russia's great power.
To help reconstruct Moscow's kremlin, Ivan summoned the most talented builders in Russia. (Pg.171)
When Ivan was only three his father died, his mother ruled Russia in his place. Five years later his mother died, he assumed that she was poisoned. The boyars bullied him growing up. Ivan became very cruel as he got older. Ivan did not tolerate any questioning or criticism. When a fire broke out in Moscow Ivan believed that it was a punishment from God. He promised to rule for the interests of the people, but he sought revenge on the boyars which he believed poisoned his mother.
Surrounded by cruelty, Ivan learned to be cruel. He liked to ride horseback through the streets of Moscow, slashing his whip at anyone who passed. (Pg.172)
Ivan became more bizarre, he did not trust the boyars at all. Anyone who displeased him would feel his full wrath. His rule became a reign of fear. His secret police roamed Russia on black horses. They terrorized the country torturing and killing his subjects. Ivan even killed his oldest son. By the end of his reign, a huge amount of the boyar class was dead.
Ivan's brutal rule became a reign of fear. The tsar's black-hooded secret police roamed Russia on black horses. They terrorized the country torturing and killing Ivan's subjects by the hundreds. (Pg.175)