The Cold War was a battle of the minds rather than a battle of bodies. Both countries felt an extreme amount of stress from the tension of constantly being on the brink of warfare.
It began in 1947 and lasted until 1991. America's fear of communism and the Soviets determination to spread communism was the start of the Cold War.
The Truman Doctrine was released and the Soviets fired back with the Comecon. Berlin Airlift in 1948 was the first conflict of the Cold War.
Both the U.S. and the Soviet became involved in other conflicts like the Korean War, the Chinese Civil War, the Vietnam War, the Soviet-Afghan War, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Although the situation was handled, the U.S. and Soviet relationship completely fell apart after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Nuclear arms race played a huge role in the continued war. The Cold War officially ended in 1991, when the U.S. was the only superpower remaining.