Piliavin et al

Piliavin et al
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  • New York 8th Avenue Independent Subway
  • Ill victim
  • Drunk victim
  • 70 seconds
  • CRITICAL AREA
  • 150 seconds
  • From 15th April to 26th June (1969) on weekdays (11am to 3pm), 4 teams of students staged a series of emergencies to explore bystander apathy and diffusion of responsibility.
  • 70 seconds
  • ADJACENT AREA
  • 150 seconds
  • Between the two stops, 59th street and 125th street there is a 7 and a half minute journey. 70 seconds into the journey, a victim would stagger forward and collapse in the critical area.
  • You feel so bad that you don't know what to do
  • Observer 1
  • ADJACENT AREA
  • It's for men to help him
  • Observer 2
  • There was also a model in the team who was aged between 24 and 29; always white. They wore informal clothes and in 2 conditions they stood in the critical area and helped victim after 70 secs or after 150 secs in same place.
  • Observer 1
  • ADJACENT AREA
  • Observer 2
  • The other two conditions for the model were: standing in the adjacent area and helping after 70 secs or standing in the adjacent area and helping after 150 secs. To help, they would raise the victim to a sitting position and remain with them.
  • CRITICAL AREA
  • The final two members in the team were the observers. They were always women and always sat in the adjacent area. Both would record spontaneous comments made by nearby passengers.
  • CRITICAL AREA
  • The 1st observer noted the total number of passengers, as well as how many helped. They also noted the race,sex and location of every passenger in the critical area. The 2nd observer noted the same for everyone in the adjacent area and recorded the latency for the 1st helper to arrive.
  • CRITICAL AREA
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