Al-Andalus was a powerful and independent state established by Abd al-Rahman. The state flourished under the Umayyad dynasty in which preserved Umayyad power from his strong leadership. Abd al-Rahman III eventually transformed Córdoba into the largest and greatest city in the world. Córdoba built great places, extended the Great Mosque and even built a huge library containing about 400,000 books.
The Mughal Empire
The Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire were always battling. The Ottoman Empire continued to build its empire as it challenged the Muslim rulers. As for the after of the reign of Suleyman I, the Ottoman Empire steadily declined. Although, it was a while because internal conflict were reduced.
Science and Philosophy
The Safavid Empire was the Ottoman Empire's rival. They fought in a war for more than 100 years, which they gained and lost properties. As time went time, the Safavid Empire developed a strong economy. They built fabulous palaces, mosques, schools, etc. However, in 1722, under the reign of Shah Abbas I, the empire reached its peak and led to its downfall.
Art and Architecture
The Mughal Empire were nomads that invaded India. Its location wedged between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire. In 1556, Akbar the Great ruled the empire at the age of 13. Akbar led the empire to its golden age. He allowed different religions to flourish and tried to end the traditional conflict by creating a new religion that mixed elements of both. The empire reached its peak when Akbar's grandson reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Medieval Muslim leaders and scholars preserved and built on the learned works of ancient Greece, Persia, and India, which helped build the foundation of the modern civilization. For example, they revived interests in geometry, trigonometry, and algebra. Muslim scholars also built upon ancient learning to extend their understanding of the universe. Lastly, they helped make the form of medicine.
Typical mosques in medieval Islamic civilization were topped by a large dome. The insides of mosques included distinctive features such as writings called caligraphy and arabesque. Arabesque consisted patterns such as flowers, leaves, vines, and geometric shapes.