Unit 4 Exam

Unit 4 Exam
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  • An oxygen molecule nearby was about to enter the rabbit's nasal passageways. As soon as the molecule entered the nasal passageways, the rabbit underwent cellular respiration. 
  • Into the air sacs (alveolar) in the lungs the oxygen molecule went. Then, diffusion took place. During the process of diffusion, molecules move from an area with high concentration to an area of low concentration. Because of this, the oxygen molecule ended up in the bloodstream of the rabbit.
  • The first step in cellular respiration is glycolysis, which takes place in the cytosol. In this step, glucose (a sugar) is converted into pyruvate. Additionally, ATP and NADH are formed by the free energy released. First, phosphorylation occurs. During phosphorylation, phosphate is introduced to the glucose molecule and two of the ATP produced turn into two ADP. Then, after phosphorylation of the glucose molecule, two molecules (one phosphate, three carbons) are formed. These molecules then each combine with the oxygen and lose an electron, which then form the NADH. Then, two ADP molecules combine with phosphate and become two ATP. 
  • Then the oxidization of pyruvate occurs, which takes place in the inter membrane space of the mitochondria. In this step, the pyruvate gets formed into acetyl coenzyme a. To become acetyl coenzyme a, the pyruvate loses a carbon dioxide molecule and NADH gets produced. After these steps, the pyruvate is turned into acetyl coenzyme a. 
  • Then is the citric acid cycle. This step occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. The acetyl coenzyme a turns into citric acid when it is combined with a four carbon molecule, then the citric acid loses a carbon molecule and combines with oxygen. Then, NADH is formed. ATP is then formed when a phosphate molecule combines with ADP and FAD is converted into FADH and NAD is converted into NADH. 
  • Oxygen also helps photosynthesis occur. First, CO2 and H2 O enter the leaves of a plant. Then lights splits the H2 O into O2  and sunlight helps convert the ADP into ATP and NADP gets turned into NADPH. These two molecules are then used in a process, the calvin cycle, which turns carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into glucose. 
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