Medieval Woman were totally dominated by the male members of their family. They were expected to instantly obey not only their father but also their brothers and any other male members of the family. Medieval Women could not be heirs to their father's titles. All titles would pass from father to son or brother to brother, depending on the circumstances.
During the reign of Queen Victoria, a woman's place was in the home, as domesticity and motherhood were considered by society at large to be a sufficient emotional fulfilment for females. These constructs kept women far away from the public sphere in most ways, but during the 19th century charitable missions did begin to extend the female role of service.
Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office. But while Roman women held no direct political power, those from wealthy or powerful families could and did exert influence through private negotiations.