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  • Photosynthesis is a process where plants create oxygen and sugar in the form of glucose. This process starts with the light dependent reactions located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Light enters photosystem II and provides energy to split water into hydrogen ions and oxygen.
  • Next, the electron transport chain occurs where electrons move protons to the inner thylakoid space. In photosystem I, more energy is absorbed. The accepter of the energy is NADP+ and it "grabs" electrons to become negatively charged and then it grabs hydrogen.
  • At the end, 2 NADP+ is used to create NADPH which is used it the light independent reaction, also known as the Calvin Cycle which occurs in the stroma of a cell. In the light independent reaction (Calvin Cycle), ATP synthase is used. To activate ATP synthase, there needs to be a proton gradient. ATP synthase transports a proton and uses the energy to have ADP go to ATP.
  • At the start of the Calvin Cycle, 3 molecules of CO2 enter and combine with RuBisCO and start the process of carbon fixation where 6 molecules of 3-PGA are created. Next, 6 ATP turns into 6 ADP. In stage 2, the reduction of 3-PGA, 6 NADPH becomes 6 NADP+ + H+.
  • Afterwards, 6 molecules of GA3P are formed and 1 of them goes away to form 1/2 of a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6.) In stage 3, the regeneration of RuBP, 3 ATP is used to create 3 ADP. After, 3 molecules of RuBP are formed to keep the Calvin Cycle going.
  • Once the regeneration of RuBP as finished, the Calvin Cycle can continuously occur if there is 3 molecules of CO2 present. As the process continues, more molecules of glucose will be produced.
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