The Cold War had many significant impacts on Kazakhstan. These include environmental, humanitarian, economic,political, and military impacts.
Soviet nuclear weapons testing made a huge impact on Kazakhstan's environment. The northeastern part of the country is now referred to as "the world's worst radiation hotspot." It is estimated that 300,000 square km of the land was affected by the tests and 1/9 of the land was turned into a nuclear wasteland.
The soviet nuclear testing also impacted humanity. Due to the exposure of tremendous amounts of radiation exposed, genetic disease, cancer, severe birth defects, etc are occurring. About 1.2 million people there still experience side effects today and now children that are born are getting sick.
The Cold War impacted the country's economy as well. A deal was signed to develop one of Kazakhstan's Caspian oil fields and now their economy is thriving.
Also, the Cold War impacted the country politically. They gained their independence from the Soviet Union and are now entering their second decade with the same autocrats in charge.
Another impact from the Cold War was military wise. Military ties were deepened with the U.S. government.