Galileo discovered many things, one of them was that he saw through his telescope that a moon(s) rotated around jupiter. He had house arrest for the rest of his life.
Newton's theory of gravity states that 2 objects attract each other with a force of gravitational attraction. He finds out that when you shine light through a glass pyramid all the colors of the rainbow appear, He found out that light is just all the colors are in light.
Church vs. Science
The Sun revolves around the Earth... The Heliocentric model is heresy.
Francis Bacon believed in the Scientific method, and that there is a logical procedure to test theories. The Scientific Method was a major contribution to this time, this was establishing a systematic way to find proof using reason.
Rev. Impacts On Today
The church teachings were brought into questions by Copernicus's Heliocentric Theory. The Heliocentric Theory is the idea that we have a sun-centered universe.
This is the scene from when Galileo has a trial against the church, and the church was the judge. No matter what Galileo was going to lose, but Galileo was put under house arrest for the rest of his life because he was one of the scientists to challenge the church teachings.
We now know about gravity, it is why we are stuck on the earth and do not just float off into space. This is why there is a saying called "what goes up, must come down" These philosophers have helped us throughout history.