Hunter-Gatherers hunted for animals and ate edible plants. Had little possessions for better mobility; they followed where animals went.
In the fertile Cresent region, humans started to domesticate animals and plants. These people were sedentary, unlike hunter-gatherers.
Agriculture started to become more known by cultural diffusion. This is one of the important steps that lead to humanity advancing.
Societies started to become civilizations and with this came some huge advancements; writing was developed and a hierarchy evolved. Since everyone didn't have to be farmers people could have certain jobs. Merchants were able to trade goods.
Around 3100 B.C. E.Egypt, they had their first Dynasty. After some time Eygpts kings were called Pharaohs; pharaohs were absolute monarchs. In mid-2,000 B.C.E. they constructed the pyramids.
The Roman Empire started as a city-state in Italy but grew through force. In 509 B.C.E. they dethroned their king and founded a republic; a form of government used nowadays. Great progress was made since the start of Huter-gatherers and has continued with each century that passes.