Galileo was born in Piza, Italy. He lived from 1564-1642. He was a famed engineer, scientist, and astronomer who was fundamental in the scientific revolution during the renaissance.
1609- Invention of telescope reached Italy. Galileo makes observations and discovers that the moon surface is not flat, but rough and rocky.
In December 1613, Galileo forwards the theory that the ocean tides speed up and slow down according to the rotation of the Earth on its axis and its revolution around the sun, which he says supports the Copernican theory that the Earth goes around the sun.
In 1632 Galileo published his “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems,” which supposedly presented arguments for both sides of the heliocentrism debate.
His advocacy of a heliocentric universe brought him before religious authorities in 1616 and again in 1633, when he was forced to recant and placed under house arrest for the rest of his life.
In 1744 Galileo’s “Dialogue” was removed from the Church’s list of banned books, and in the 20th century Popes Pius XII and John Paul II made official statements of regret for how the Church had treated Galileo.