The Cultivation System was created in the mid-19th century to increase the profits of the Dutch East Indies. The policy was created by the Dutch Government to bring the Netherlands out of bankruptcy.
Johannes van den Bosch was the new Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He was appointed in 1830 by the Dutch to help alleviate the costs due to the Belgian Revolution.
The Cultivation System, or Cultuurstelsel was mainly implemented in Java. They tasked the natives to bring at least 20% of their crops to the government for export, or work in government plantations for 60 days.
The Dutch set up a group of Native middlemen to process and tellthe other Natives to farm the crops. They got very wealthy in the process as well.
As a result of the Cultivation System, the export rates of the Dutch East Indies increased by 14% per annum. The colony got self-sustaining and many others got very wealthy.
Also, even though the Javanese become more impoverished, in the long term they have recieved a large increase in standard of living.