Greece development saw advances in art, architecture, science, technology, and literature such as writing, epics, theater, and poetry. The Greeks went on to spreading their ways across Asia and Africa, while taking in ancient heritages from Egypt and Mesopotamia along the way.
Peloponnesian War on Greek Civilization
The alliance of Greek cities led to the victory in the Persian Wars. Shortly after, Greek civilizations started to define their culture specifically as Greek. With the literary, technological, and theatrical advancements that Greek culture provided for the development of civilizations over time, there is no doubt that the victory of the Persian Wars was significant.
After becoming the capital of Greece, Athenians went through a Golden Age. The Golden Age was a time of cultural prosperity, and with it came the new heights of empires. Some introductions throughout the golden age was the establishment of the Parthenon, the upbringing of famous philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and the upbringing of famous mathematicians and scientists such as Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes.
The 27 year-long war between the Spartans and the Athenians on resources and power called for the victory of the dictatorial Spartans and the end of one of the most culturally advanced Greek states. After the war, Greece's city-states continued to struggle for power, leading to a difficult era of extended conflict between Sparta, Athens and Thebes.
The Hellenistic Age was brought up by Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian empire. Where Alexander went, Greek culture followed. Alexander had founded many Greek-style cities and brought Greek culture all over the Middle East. As results of this cosmopolitan age, populations became much more heterogeneous, new installations such as libraries and universities were built, and literature, science, and art was spread vastly.