Over next few decades muslims in the middle east increasingly came under same leadership. By 1180s the great Sultan Shal-al-Din called Saladin by Europeans,had formed the largest muslim empire. He led a renewed fight against crusades in the holy land.
Shal-al-Din quickly took back most of Palestine.In 1187 his armies captured Jerusalem. Shal-al-Din did not kill the prisoners,instead he freed many and sold some for ransom. Other were sold into slavery. Muslims won the crusade.
The loss of Jerusalem shocked the Europeans and sparked the third crusade. King Richard I of England also known as the lion heart. He led a fighht against Shal-al-Din
King Richard I
Richard then fought his way to Jerusalem, but his army was not strong enough to attack the city. Shal-al-Din's army also grew weaker. On September 1192, both leaders signed a peace treaty. Muslims allowed Cristians to to enter Jerusalem
The crusaders to the middle east continued for another 100 years. some crusaders were popular moments of poor people rather than organized military campaign.
In 1212 tens of thousands of peasant children from France and Germany. Marched in as "Child Crusade". Few if any ever reached in the holy land. Some marched back home and some dissapeared.