The Renaissance was a European era of change and influence. It was primarily a period of rebirth and cultural influence on the arts and literature of Europe.
The Age of Exploration was a time period where many European countries began to set out and explore other continents and countries in order to get more land and resources. It took place in roughly the 15th century to the 17th century.
The Protestant Reformation was a European movement in the 16th century in order to reform the Church and it's ways. It was started by Martin Luther when he nailed the 95 Theses to the door of a church that explained how the church was corrupt, greedy and had too much power.
The Scientific Revolution was a time period where there were many advancements in the fields of math and various subjects of science. It took place in the time between the 16th and 18th century.
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that took place in the 18th century. It led to many new ideas on how the world worked and how the government should work as well as many philosophical advances.
The Cold War was a 20th century "war" between the United States and the Soviet Union that was entirely made up of tension. Neither side ever really attacked, but the tension was enough to strike fear into the individuals of each country.