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  • PILIAVIN ET AL
  • AIM: To investigate helping behaviour in a natural environment and understand the conditions in which people are more likely to help
  • 4 groups of  4  students were used , they observed what would happen when a victim collapsed on a train. Each group had 2 male actors and 2 female observes.
  • Approx 4500 men and women passengers travelling on a New York subway between 11 am and 3 pm became participants.
  • ADJACENT AREA
  • Observers were in the same carriage but entered from different door and were sat in the adjacent seating areas.
  • Actor, sat in the same area as victim. Either sat still or offered help after a period of time
  • Victim entered the carriage and stood next to the central ausle handrail.
  • CRITICAL AREA
  • Observers would record how many people there were in critical and adjacent area, their race, sex, and who helped (how long they took to help)
  • At the first station the victim stumbled forward and collapsed on the floor at the critical area.
  • CRITICAL AREA
  • Victim stayed collapsed until help came. This varied as the actor didn't always offer help. Sometimes they waited until the 4th of 6th station. 
  • Victim (black and white) was either sober and carrying a cane or drunk carrying a bottle. They stared at the ceiling after collapsing
  • OVER 103 TRIALS
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