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With the end of the last king of Rome, a new period is born. This is called the Republic, given to a new state by the Romans. Instead of a king they had 2 men that made the decisions. They were called consuls They were given a senate. The responsibility of the senate remained the same. The senate also helped make decisions like planning war. Other important roles were the judge of the city (praetor), the financial officer (quaestor), the office of public relations (aedile), and the priest, (pontifex maximus). The people were divided into two groups. The patricians who were the rich land owners and the plebians who were the common people like farmers and hunters.
Ruled by two kings <----------
During the early Republic phase (509 -133) the plebians got angry because they couldn't participate in goverment and their land was being stolen. The were in a state in debt which led to a social struggle lasting 200 years. it was very non-violent though. By means of people going on strike and refusing to work so they could be treated equally. Slowly they got rights, finally allowing the plebians where allowed to enter.
give us rights!
During the first three centuries of the Republic, Rome became a world power. Rome claimed land through Italy to the Meditarranean. In 390 b.c, they drove the Gauls out, who burnt their city. The next century they conquered the Etruscans and other tribes. The Samnites were the enemy for a while. They were the toughest tribe but after 3 battles they were defeated. The Romans conquered Italy, and the only people left were the greeks. The Greeks called for help so King Pyrrhus fought against the Romans for 5 years. This was called the Pyrrhic war. He was hard to defeat because he fought with elephants but Rome soon defeated them.
In the third century Rome and Carthage were at war. The only prominent left of the mediterranean. Carthage was established by the Pheonicians. They were in charge of the North African and Spanish coasts. Rome and Charthage fought three wars, each of these called the Punic wars. The first war was caused by an interest over Sicily. The Carthage lost and Sicily became a province of Rome. Carthage then claimed Spain for it's own causing another war to go down.
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